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Conflict between nations is a bitter reality in today’s world. Unequal access to resources, together with ideological and religious differences result in complex conflicts that cause much suffering for those involved. At its simplest, conflict is defined as a difference of opinion or interest. It can refer to disputes between individuals, groups, nations and organizations. Unfortunately, there are many countries in the world experiencing ongoing conflicts that have had severe economic and social implications for years. This article will provide an overview of four such countries: Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan and South Sudan where these issues persist with no end in sight.
Syria has had a long history of civil war since 2011 when anti-government uprisings began against President Bashar al-Assad. The war quickly escalated as regional rivalries fueled violence between government forces and the opposition groups on both sides of the conflict. Today, fighting continues between these two factions along with those backed by external nations such as Iran or Russia — making it one of the most complex battles being fought in terms of sheer numbers but also alliance dynamics involved at any given time. Additionally, nearly 11 million Syrians have been displaced due to this ongoing crisis, creating an unparalleled humanitarian disaster in its wake as refugees struggle to find food, shelter, healthcare access, and other basic necessities, leading them further away from their homes, either within or outside country borders.
Leaving more than 400,000 people dead according to UN estimates, while millions others remain displaced within their own country or scattered across different neighbouring states including Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq amongst other places, rendering them homeless refugees fleeing extreme violence often involving chemical weapons, gas attacks, heavy bombardment etcetera causing worldwide revulsion at images circulated through media outlets, making it one of the most deadly conflicts since World War Two.
Yemen has been in a state of civil war since 2015, when the Houthi rebel group, which is primarily made up of members of the Zaidi Shia Muslim community, seized control of the capital, Sanaa. The conflict escalated when a coalition of countries led by Saudi Arabia intervened to support the internationally recognized government. The war has resulted in a humanitarian crisis, with millions of people in need of aid, and a large number of civilian deaths. The war has also created a power vacuum that has allowed extremist groups, such as al-Qaida and ISIS, to gain a foothold in the country.
Since 2015 this Arab nation located on Red Sea’s southern rim has seen bloody battles fought between Houthi rebels supported by Iran who seized control over large parts of Southern Arabian Peninsula especially capital Sanaa versus Saudi led coalition allied with Yemeni Government trying restore its authority resulting total breakdown law order minimal humanitarian access entire region leading numerous human rights violations along famine disease cholera outbreak.
Yemen is currently facing multiple crises, which include mass displacement caused by recurrent periods of armed hostilities; severe economic decline, particularly through declining purchasing power parity (PPP); alarming increases in poverty levels; persistent malnutrition spread throughout the population, especially children under 5 years old whose mortality rate was already alarmingly high even prior to the start of full-scale warfare there back in 2016; and risk factors associated that now threaten millions — including deteriorating water quality.
Afghanistan has been in a state of conflict for decades. The modern conflict began in 2001, when the United States and its allies invaded the country to oust the Taliban government and hunt for Al-Qaida members after the 9/11 attacks. The conflict has continued for more than 20 years, with the Taliban regaining control of large parts of the country and the government struggling to maintain stability. The war has resulted in a large number of civilian deaths and injuries, and has caused extensive damage to the country’s infrastructure and economy.
South Sudan is the world’s youngest country, having gained independence from Sudan in 2011. However, the country has been plagued by civil war since 2013, when President Salva Kiir Mayardit accused his former vice president, Riek Machar, of plotting a coup. The conflict has escalated into a multi-sided war, with various ethnic groups becoming involved. The war has resulted in a humanitarian crisis, with millions of people displaced and many facing starvation. The war has also created a power vacuum that has allowed extremist groups to gain a foothold in the country.
There are several pathways to peaceful solutions for conflicts, some of the most common include:
It’s worth to mention that every conflict is different and have different causes, therefore the solutions may vary depending on the specific context of the conflict.